The competitive advantage of China's construction machinery is further enhanced
- The rapid rise of China's construction machinery manufacturing industry has become the world's largest manufacturing base
General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out that a country must have correct strategic choices. my country is a big country and must develop the real economy, continuously promote industrial modernization, and improve the level of manufacturing.
The entity is prosperous, and the country is strong. Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, my country has always put the focus of economic development on the real economy, taking improving the quality of the supply system as the main direction of attack, and significantly enhancing my country's economic quality advantage. Starting today, this edition has launched a series of reports on "This decade, the real economy has become stronger", focusing on key industries such as construction machinery, automobiles, and steel, showing how various industries have continuously improved the modernization level of industrial chains and supply chains and continuously improved their core competitiveness over the past decade. Live practice.
Construction machinery is an important part of the equipment manufacturing industry, and its development level is a key indicator to measure a country's industrialization level. "The equipment manufacturing industry is the backbone of the manufacturing industry. It is necessary to increase investment, strengthen research and development, and accelerate development, strive to occupy the commanding heights of the world, and control the technological voice, so that my country will become a modern equipment manufacturing country." Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, President Xi Jinping The secretary has always been concerned about the development of the construction machinery industry, and has inspected construction machinery enterprises many times. In the past ten years, China's construction machinery manufacturing industry has risen rapidly, becoming the world's largest manufacturing base. In 2021, among the top 10 global construction machinery companies, China has 3 seats, ranking first in total. Industry insiders believe that China's construction machinery industry has occupied an important position in the world construction machinery industry pattern.
After ten years of transformation, the key components have basically been matched, and the development of the industry can help super engineering workers to do good things, they must first sharpen their tools. Construction machinery is the "tool" built in China. The Shamarada Tunnel, the highest point of the Laocheng-Kunming Railway, has a total length of 6.38 kilometers. In the 1950s and 1960s, railway workers used hammers, explosives and dump trucks to cut through the mountains, and 136 builders died in the line of duty.
More than 50 years later, 30 kilometers away from the Shamarada Tunnel, the construction of the Xiaoxiangling Tunnel of the Xincheng-Kunming Railway began. There are three-arm fully computerized rock drilling rigs for drilling and slag shovel loading trucks. With the blessing of advanced equipment, problems such as fault fracture, soft rock deformation, inrush water, and karst rock burst have been successfully solved, achieving zero accidents and zero casualties. Construction machinery has helped China become an infrastructure powerhouse, and the huge demand for China's economic development has also driven the industry to take off. In 2011, the operating income of China's construction machinery industry exceeded 500 billion yuan, ranking first in the world. However, the construction machinery industry at that time also had hidden pains: key parts and components relied on imports for a long time, and 70% of the profits were earned by foreign parts manufacturers. Taking the hydraulic system as an example, for a 20-ton excavator, the hydraulic system accounts for no more than 5% of the weight of the whole machine, but the value accounts for 25%. "The share of hydraulic parts of a foreign brand was as high as 80%." said Hu Qi, general manager of Sany Heavy Machinery Middle Excavation Company.
The key core technologies must be firmly in their own hands, and the industry has started to tackle tough problems for ten years. The core components continue to break through. As the cradle of new China's construction machinery, Liugong is committed to making loaders equipped with domestic hydraulic parts. "In the beginning, even the coating formulation on the surface of the torque converter sand core was a secret closely guarded by foreign giants." LiuGong Chief Scientist Chu Changxiang introduced that it took many years for LiuGong to successfully control the coating thickness to 0.2 mm Inside.
In 2018, with the successful rollout of the first 12-ton wheel loader, my country became the fourth country to independently develop this equipment. This loader is equipped with a 12-ton hydraulic torque converter independently developed by Liugong. The torque converter, installed between the engine and the gearbox, can multiply the torque of the engine and output power. The 12-ton hydraulic torque converter has become an iconic product of my country's construction machinery core components. The whole machine factory exerts its force to force the high-quality development of the hydraulic industry. By the end of 2021, there are more than 300 hydraulic enterprises above designated size in China, and new specialized and special enterprises such as Hengli Hydraulics and Aidi Precision have emerged.
Basic materials make up for shortcomings. In October 2016, the 1100 MPa high-strength steel developed by XCMG Machinery and Baosteel was successfully applied to cranes above 100 tons. Steel, the key basic material of construction machinery, accounts for about 30% of the cost. "High-strength steel can not only effectively reduce the weight of the whole machine, but also greatly improve the working efficiency and service life of the equipment." said Jiang Dawei, general manager of XCMG Supply. However, for a long time, high-strength steel manufacturing technology has been monopolized by foreign countries. The high price of imported high-strength steel, insufficient supply, and long delivery cycle severely restrict the development of domestic complete machine enterprises. To this end, XCMG, Baosteel and Nanjing Iron and Steel launched joint research, successively solved problems such as the purity of molten steel and the size control of cold stamping of steel, and gradually increased the strength of hot-rolled steel from 700 MPa to 1,100 MPa. In the past 10 years, the price of high-strength steel plates in the industry has been reduced by 50%, and the procurement cycle has been shortened from 6 months to 2 to 3 months.
With the continuous breakthrough of the "three bases" of basic materials, basic processes and basic components, super equipment such as the world's largest upper slewing tower crane, the world's largest crawler crane, and crawler all-terrain engineering vehicles have emerged in the industry, helping "China Super projects such as "Road", "China Bridge" and "China Port" have been transformed from drawings into reality.
Sail out to sea, my country is the country with the most complete construction machinery industry chain in the world, and overseas markets are expected to enter the harvest period, with good internal skills, Chinese construction machinery strides to the international market. In 2021, the export value of construction machinery will increase by 62.78% year-on-year, and the trade surplus will reach 30.3 billion US dollars, setting a new record. In January this year, the industry's export volume reached a record high of 3.65 billion US dollars, and in February it reached 2.636 billion US dollars, the highest level in the history of the same month. In March, the good news continued to come: the full cabin went to sea! As the whistle sounded, a giant ship full of more than 300 Sany equipment set sail from the dock. All three in one row! 150 containers, loaded with nearly 100 pieces of equipment, and the value of goods exceeded 50 million yuan.
Competing with international giants in the same industry, what are the advantages of China's construction machinery? The complete industrial chain and short delivery cycle are the direct reasons. Lv Ying, deputy secretary-general of the China Construction Machinery Industry Association, said that due to rising commodity prices and the introduction of stimulus policies by many countries, demand in the international market is strong. At the same time, the COVID-19 epidemic has seriously affected the supply chains of multinational companies, and Chinese companies have quickly made up for the gap in international production capacity and seized the market with their well-established industrial chains. "Under the epidemic, our delivery cycle is only 30 to 40 days, and foreign companies are at least 6 months, with an average of 6 to 12 months." Deng Tao, senior director of Liugong's overseas regions, said that my country is a global construction machinery category. The country with the most complete, richest varieties and the most complete industrial chain. As small as screws, as large as hydraulic components and engines, they can all be matched.
Stable quality and high cost performance are the fundamental reasons. "Compared with foreign countries, the strength of China's products is not bad at all." Wang Peng, chief engineer of the South Bank Work Area of Shantou Bay Tunnel Project, said that China's complex and diverse landforms are the best "training ground". "Leveraged". In the Shantou Gulf Tunnel, a competition between Chinese and foreign shield machines was staged. The imported shield machine is responsible for the tunnels of the east line, and the domestic shield machine "China Railway No. 306" is responsible for the west line. After more than 700 days, the results came out: in the face of complex construction conditions such as boulders, bedrocks, and 8-degree earthquake intensity areas, the domestic shield machine took two months less. It is precisely by virtue of this strength that China's shield machine has realized the transformation from import to export, which is not only popular in emerging markets, but also exported to developed economies such as France and Israel. International layout and thoughtful service are plus points.
No matter how good the quality of construction machinery is, operation and maintenance services are indispensable. When it first entered Turkey, Liugong's products could not start construction due to "acclimatization", and were once asked by customers to withdraw from the market. At the critical moment, the domestic research institute raced against time to change the design, and the new parts were airlifted to the site within 15 days, which solved the problem. LiuGong quickly built a localized service network, shortened the time limit to 24 hours, and was successfully included in the Turkish government procurement directory, winning many large orders. Under the epidemic, the advantages of Chinese enterprises' overseas marketing service system have been further highlighted. "Chinese engineers are with us." Liugong's Indonesian customer Ruo Baike was very moved. When the epidemic was the worst, the Chinese security team stood by day and night. "At present, the adjustment of the layout and structure of the international construction machinery industry has brought new opportunities for my country's construction machinery." Lv Ying said that the industry has already aimed at the European and American markets. XCMG invested 99 million US dollars to set up the US company, Liugong UK company is fully operational, and Sany Italy company officially opened. "Focusing on the world's frontier, there is a lot of room for expansion in the European and American markets." Wang Min, chairman of XCMG Machinery, said. Continuing to make up for shortcomings, improve quality, and make efforts to be green and intelligent, 12.7%, 10.4%, 12%, 16%, and 20.6%. In the past five years, the operating income of the construction machinery industry has maintained a double-digit high growth. However, challenges are also at hand. In the first two months of this year, the year-on-year growth rate of the industry's operating income dropped to 1.5%. As the new urbanization enters the second half, is the construction machinery market saturated?
Lu Ying believes that the domestic market is far from peaking. Taking excavators as an example, by the end of 2021, the number of excavators in my country will exceed 2 million, more than the sum of other countries and regions in the world. However, from the perspective of the number of excavators corresponding to the total output value of the construction industry, China is about 428 units per 1 billion US dollars, which is only 32% of Japan's. "With the high-quality development of my country's economy and society, the demand for construction machinery is still strong." Lv Ying said. So, where is the new driving force for the development of construction machinery? "Only innovation can be self-improvement and competition." Zeng Guangan, chairman of Liugong Machinery, said that the industry consensus has been reached. To break through the key points, the shortcomings of the "three bases" have to be made up. At present, the hydraulic parts required for high-end construction machinery in my country still rely on imports. From the perspective of components, hydraulic cylinders have basically achieved localization, and hydraulic pumps and hydraulic motors have gradually accelerated domestic substitution, but the gap between hydraulic valves still exists. Reflected in the whole machine, the first overhaul period of the whole machine using domestic parts is obviously different from that of foreign leading products. Cranes are super "Hercules" in construction machinery. "In 2015, we achieved 100% domestic independent matching of all-terrain cranes below 50 tons, and the localization rate of products below 300 tons has also reached 100%." The person in charge of XCMG Machinery introduced that the next step is thousand-ton cranes The localization rate will also exceed 90%. The upstream and downstream of the industrial chain work together to make up for shortcomings. "The industry will work together to make the reliability and durability of core basic components close to the international advanced level, and the self-sufficiency rate will reach 90%." Lv Ying said. In pursuit of high quality, product details have to be scrutinized.
Chinese construction machinery has gradually become reliable and durable, but there are still gaps in handling and comfort. For example, the difference between the ear noise level of drivers of some models and foreign products is still more than 5 decibels, and the difference in the level of external radiation noise is also more than 2 decibels. According to Chu Changxiang, the team dismantled the engine, transmission system and even the cab seat one by one during the "shock reduction and noise reduction" research, and tried all the fans and mufflers that could be found on the market, but they could not reach the Require. To this end, LiuGong built the industry's largest semi-anechoic laboratory. Chu Changxiang said that in the future, the noise value of the equipment tested and certified here will be 10% lower than the EU standard. Grasp new trends, and there is a large space for low-carbon intelligence. Under the "double carbon" goal, the green transformation of construction machinery is imminent. Electrification is a breakthrough for the industry. On the supply side, with the rapid development of new energy vehicles in my country, the lithium battery industry has ranked among the top in the world. "Strong supporting capacity and stable production capacity are favorable conditions for the electrification of China's construction machinery." Lv Ying said that electrification will further expand the application field of construction machinery and provide a foundation for intelligence. On the demand side, electric construction machinery, as a "money saver", is gradually gaining recognition. "With the five-year warranty period for batteries and motors, the equipment operates for 12 hours a day on average, and the diesel consumption is about 2 million yuan, while the electricity consumption is only 500,000 yuan, and only the fuel cost can save nearly 1.5 million yuan for the enterprise in 5 years. ” said the person in charge of a steel plant.
The results are already showing. "A few years ago, our electric loader was only produced in small batches, and now it has been mass-produced and successfully exported." Zeng Guangan said that the electric loader can operate continuously for 6 to 10 hours after charging for 1 hour, which is helping the construction of the Sichuan-Tibet Railway. The application of intelligent construction machinery is also gradually being promoted: in open-pit mines, unmanned construction machinery fleets can operate completely autonomously; The mine safety factor and production efficiency have been greatly improved." The person in charge of the first open-pit coal mine unmanned project in Hami, Xinjiang said that after the whole mine is unmanned, the truck transportation efficiency will increase by more than 10%, and the annual production and operation cost will be reduced by 10%.
Lv Ying said that in terms of electrification, the industry still needs to overcome technical difficulties such as electric drive functional components, electronic control systems and power batteries; in terms of intelligence, in order to produce intelligent products, the intelligent manufacturing level of construction machinery enterprises also needs to be improved. . "Don't be afraid of difficulties, conquer 'Loushanguan' and 'Lazikou', the whole industry will usher in greater victory." Wang Min said.Editor/XingWentao